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From: Wharf Rat3/16/2023 2:39:52 PM
1 Recommendation   of 23933
The fight to define ‘green hydrogen’ could determine America’s emissions future

The Treasury Department’s definition will affect billions of dollars in federal subsidies for the nascent industry.

By Guest
onMar 16, 2023 @ 10:11 PDT

Maritime Hydrogen Fuel Cell unit. Credit: Sandia Labs. CC BY 2.0

By Emily Pontecorvo, Grist. This story originally appeared in Grist and is part of Covering Climate Now, a global journalism collaboration strengthening coverage of the climate story.

With the passage of the Inflation Reduction Act last year, a decades-long effort to get a major climate package through Congress is over. But the work of ensuring this unprecedented bundle of funding for clean energy actually leads to reduced emissions is just beginning.

A decision with profound implications for that goal now lies with the Treasury Department, which must settle a debate over the best way of crafting a tax credit designed to advance the production of clean hydrogen. Scientists and climate advocates warn that without rigorous guidelines dictating who is eligible for the subsidy, the government could spend billions propping up hydrogen production facilities with enormous carbon footprints, wiping out many of the other climate gains catalyzed by the legislation.

“Absent strong rules, we could increase emissions by half a gigaton over the lifetime of the credit,” Rachel Fakhry, a senior climate and clean energy advocate at the Natural Resources Defense Council, told Grist. “The current emissions of the power sector is 1.5 gigatons. So this is completely contrary to U.S. climate goals. The stakes are extremely high.”

Such concerns came up repeatedly during a public comment period that ended in December. But the hydrogen industry, oil companies like Chevron and BP that are investing in the technology, and even a few renewable energy groups argued otherwise. They flooded the Treasury with comments insisting that arduous rules will undermine U.S. climate goals — by killing this nascent clean technology before it can even get started.

Onerous rules would “devastate the economics” of green hydrogen, David Reuter, chief communications officer for the energy company NextEra, told Grist in an email. They would shut down investment in the industry, “effectively making it dead on arrival.”

Building a domestic clean hydrogen industry is a key part of the Biden administration’s climate strategy. The fuel has the potential to replace oil, gas, and coal in a range of applications, from aviation to industrial processes like steelmaking and chemical manufacturing. Most importantly, it does not emit carbon when it’s used.

The dispute over the tax credit comes down to the unusual business of producing hydrogen. Current supplies are made by reforming natural gas, which releases greenhouse gasses. The tax credit is designed to reduce the cost of a carbon-free method that requires only electricity, water, and a machine called an electrolyzer. Producers can earn up to $3 per kilogram of hydrogen they produce this way. The tax credit has no cap, and could pay out more than $100 billion over the lifetime of the credit.*

The question for the Treasury is how to measure the emissions from the electricity used. About 60 percent of U.S. electricity still comes from fossil fuels. Plug your hydrogen plant into the grid pretty much anywhere in the country today, and it could result in higher emissions than the conventional production method that uses natural gas.

Late last year, a prominent energy modeling group at Princeton University circulated new research showing that hydrogen producers could all but eliminate this emissions impact by following three principles. These are the rigorous rules that the Natural Resources Defense Council and other environmental groups want the Treasury to adopt.

First, producers must contract with new renewable energy resources like wind and solar farms or geothermal power plants, ensuring that enough new clean electricity comes onto the grid to cover the hydrogen plant’s demand. Second, these resources must feed into the same regional grid that the hydrogen plant uses, with no transmission bottlenecks between them. And third, hydrogen producers must match their operations with these renewable energy resources on an hourly basis. That means if they buy power from, say, a solar farm, they have to shut down when the sun goes down.

That hourly matching concept is giving hydrogen producers the biggest headache. “Grid-tied electrolyzers are most economic when operating as close to 100 percent as possible,” said Reuter. “A clean hydrogen project may have to curtail its electrolyzer if renewables are not available at these granular time periods. Curtailment leads to long idle times and higher costs.”

Instead, NextEra and others in the industry urge the government to accept a scenario in which they buy enough renewable energy to cover their electricity usage on an annual basis. That means a hydrogen plant could run ‘round the clock for a year, total up its energy usage, and buy an equivalent amount of solar or wind power. Reuter cited an analysis by the consulting firm Wood Mackenzie which found that such a scheme could bring enough renewable power onto the grid to cancel out the dirty production and result in net zero-emissions hydrogen.

Wilson Ricks, who led the Princeton study, noted that Wood Mackenzie made several different assumptions that led to that conclusion. For one, the authors didn’t include clean electricity subsidies from the Inflation Reduction Act, “which leads to significantly higher total costs for both annual and hourly matching,” he said. It will be up to the Treasury to parse these differences.

The stakes of eschewing any one of the three principles are not just about emissions or project costs. Fakhry said that if hydrogen producers increase demand for electricity when renewable resources are unavailable, they will undoubtedly cause natural gas and coal-fired power plants to ramp up. That could worsen air pollution and drive up the cost of electricity. It also creates a reputational risk for the budding industry — it will be much harder to make the case for using green hydrogen if there’s uncertainty about how clean it actually is.

Right now, some self-described green hydrogen producers are flocking to areas like upstate New York, where existing hydropower is cheap, and Florida, where solar energy is abundant. But if the Treasury agrees that hydrogen production must be powered by new, clean resources at all times to earn the tax credit, those projects wouldn’t just lose the ability to claim the credit — they would lose credibility.

Criticisms of the approach NextEra and others propose are not new, nor are they unique to hydrogen. Many companies that claim they are “powered by 100 percent renewable energy,” are likely doing some form of annual matching. But there’s a growing consensus that this claim is misleading. In 2020, technology giant Google came to the conclusion that it needed to match its energy usage with clean sources on a 24/7 basis to fully eliminate its carbon footprint. At the time, there weren’t really any products or systems set up to facilitate this. But the landscape has changed dramatically since then, said Maud Texier, director of clean energy and carbon development at Google. Businesses have sprung up to help companies track their consumption on a granular basis, and renewable energy markets have created hourly products.

“We see a whole value chain and ecosystem developing around this 24/7 solution,” she said. “Today for new entrants, there’s many more tools for them to get started.”

Google still has a ways to go to achieve its goal. But many other companies, nonprofits, and even governments have signed on to the concept. A United Nations-sponsored initiative includes more than 100 signatories. In 2021, the Biden administration set a goal for at least 50 percent of the power consumed by government buildings to be emissions-free on a 24/7 basis by 2030.

“The market is heading in this direction,” said Fakhry. “The tools are here and can scale really fast where they’re not. And the Treasury imposing anything short of that is contrary to momentum in the market.”

The argument that hourly matching would destroy the economics for green hydrogen also doesn’t entirely stand up to scrutiny. Seven hydrogen and renewable energy companies filed joint comments to the Treasury arguing that the approach is technologically and economically feasible. One of them, Electric Hydrogen, is developing electrolyzers designed to shut on and off to match renewable energy availability. Raffi Garabedian, the company’s CEO, acknowledged that today’s electrolyzers are so expensive that it does make it harder to square a project’s finances if they operate intermittently. But he said some hydrogen developers are combining wind and solar contracts, allowing them to operate a lot closer to 24/7.

“You’re still shutting off every day, but that helps the economics,” he said. “But it’s not possible, nor is it the right thing to do to run hydrogen production at all hours of the day. I’ll just say that really bluntly.”

Garabedian and others pointed a hydrogen plant under development in Texas, a joint project by the energy corporation AES and the chemical company Air Products. Rather than plugging into the grid, the companies plan to build wind and solar farms to supply the plant directly. A representative for AES confirmed that the plant “will ramp up and down with the availability of renewable energy generation.”

Another project under development in Mississippi by the company Hy Stor is taking a similar approach, combining wind and solar to power its plant. It will use underground caverns to store hydrogen so that it can provide a steady supply to customers when the plant’s operations slow or halt.

It’s true that rigorous rules would significantly skew the geography of clean hydrogen. Daniel Esposito, a senior policy analyst at the think tank Energy Innovation, said he expects to see more developers head to wind belt states like Texas and New Mexico. To him, this would be a positive outcome, because industries in those areas, like ammonia production and major trucking routes, are great candidates to become clean hydrogen customers. “There’s a lot of great uses there that don’t have a lot of great alternative solutions,” he said.

Whatever Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen and her department decide will shape the future of the nation’s clean hydrogen industry for years to come — and by extension, the impact of the Inflation Reduction Act. For Esposito, the decision turns on a single question.

“Are we aiming for building up the industry, emissions be damned? Or building up the industry at a slower pace, with the emissions in check from the start? We just want to make sure that everybody writing the rules knows the implications.”

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From: Eric3/17/2023 10:01:25 AM
   of 23933
How switching out fossil gas for renewables could save this town $321 million

Amalyah Hart & Sophie Vorrath 17 March 2023 6

Broome Shire Administration Centre. Source: Wikimedia Commons

A detailed new study has found that the Western Australia beach resort town of Broome could be powered by 80% renewable energy at three-quarters of the cost of its current gas-fired electricity supply, amounting to total lifetime savings of $321 million.

Broome is a coastal hub in the remote, tropical Kimberley region, with a permanent population of around 14,500, though that number soars in the dry tourist season, from May through to October.

According to the report by Sustainable Energy Now (SEN), Broome’s current electricity supply comes from gas generators that are fuelled by LNG delivered by road train from Karratha, at a price of $22/GJ.

In a zero renewables scenario, gas is required to generate 131GWh of electricity, which corresponds to 21.1 thousand tonnes of LNG, or more than seven roadtrain deliveries a week.

The current contract to supply Broome with power ends in 2027, which means the WA state government will have to decide how to replace the system in a way that aligns with its climate targets.

With the Labor McGowan government committing to reducing its own emissions by 80% by 2030, SEN decided to chart the feasibility of such a shift in Broome by modelling future costs across a whole range of electricity generation mixes.

The study, which builds on the existing Kimberley Clean Energy Roadmap (KCER), calculates that the current LNG-only electricity generated to supply Broome has an estimated levelised cost of energy (LCOE) of $293/MWh.

This cost could be pushed down significantly, however to $215/MWh, using a combination of 60MW of solar – both utility-scale and rooftop – combined with 40MW/160MWh battery storage, backed up by the existing 30MW of gas (LNG) generation.

“The lowest cost scenario is with 60MW PV, achieving an LCOE of $215/MWh, $78/MWh less than the gas-only
scenario,” the report says.

“This scenario meets 82% of load with 160MWh of 4 hour battery storage. In this scenario, surplus energy remains relatively low.”

The report further finds that increasing solar to 80MW would generate 52GWh a year of intermittent, surplus energy with only a marginal increase in the LCOE, though mostly in the dry season. This study says that this surplus power could be used in “innovative applications” that could further reduce the LCOE.

In terms of the gas supply, the above scenario would mean an average of only 18% of generation would come from the fossil fuel, which equates to an average of just over 10 tonnes of LNG per day, or 1.32 shipments a week – a significant daily reduction of 47.4 tonnes.

And this equates to a huge cost saving, too.

The total lifetime cost of the proposed renewables solution is estimated at $707 million with new gas generation and $636 million with a gas plant refurbishment.

This compares to the total lifetime cost of the 100% gas option with new generators, at $957 million.

“If refurbished generators are used, the lifetime savings of the RE scenario are estimated to be $321 million,” the report says.

“In other words, lifetime costs of the LNG-only scenario are 50% more than the RE scenario.”

“There is an excellent opportunity to move from mostly gas to predominantly renewable energy generation at the conclusion of the existing LNG generation contract in 2027,” says Martin Pritchard, a spokesperson for Environs Kimberley which co-sponsored the report.

“This will be achieved by a mix of rooftop PV and solar farms, with substantial battery storage.”

Dr Rob Phillips, from SEN, says the plan would enable any landowner in Broome to install solar on their own rooftop.

“High penetration of renewables with batteries in the Kimberley will drastically reduce the amount of fuel required for generation, increasing resilience in flood events,” Phillips says.

“Broome has the potential to become a leader in renewable energy, and this study shows that the transition to a clean energy future is not only feasible but also cheaper,” adds Pritchard.

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To: Wharf Rat who wrote (23321)3/17/2023 11:11:28 AM
From: Eric
1 Recommendation   of 23933
Clean electricity to reach as high as 90% by 2030

A U.S. DOE report analyzing recent policy changes said carbon emissions-free energy will represent 71% to 90% of the nation’s generation mix.

March 16, 2023 Ryan Kennedy

Markets & Policy
United States

Image: Dennis Schroeder / NREL


Following the passage of the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law and The Inflation Reduction Act, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sees the nation on a path to rapid, near-term growth in emissions-free electricity, while reducing costs for consumers, lowering harmful pollution, mitigating climate change, and creating new economic opportunities along the way.

In collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the DOE evaluated an advanced planning model that identifies least-cost power-sector investment portfolios accounting for major provisions of both laws. Provisions evaluated include, among others, tax credits for new clean electricity generation, energy storage, and carbon capture and sequestration and a variety of non-tax IRA and Infrastructure Law provisions.

The analysis found that clean electricity as a percentage of total generation could increase to over 80% in 2030 under mid-case assumptions. The low-case and high-case projections place clean energy’s share of electricity generation between 71% to 90%. This is substantially greater than the 41% share emissions-free electricity achieved in 2022.

Under the model, Solar and wind scale rapidly, more than doubling historical maximum rates of annual deployment in many scenarios. DOE now expects 350 GW to 750 GW of new capacity from these two technologies by 2030 depending on future market conditions.

This renewables growth is projected to be supported by 40 GW to 100 GW of new energy storage and a 11% to 24% expansion of long-distance transmission by 2030.

Image:Department oEnergy

Furthermore, the DOE said clean electricity growth will lower bulk power costs by $50 billion to $115 billion through 2030, saving ratepayers money on their bills. In 2030, the reduction equates to approximately $3 per MWh (5%) to $6 per MWh (13%).

Carbon emissions may decline between 72% to 91% less than 2005 levels by 2030, even with increased total electricity generation. NREL’s research found that IRA and the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law’s power sector provisions lead to the avoidance 600 million to 900 million metric tons of annual carbon emissions. And, power-sector air pollution reductions may help prevent up to 11,000-18,000 deaths through 2030.

From an jobs perspective, the two laws are expected to lead to more than 500,000 new jobs. The laws also target economic prosperity for disadvantaged communities. Among other provisions, the laws include $3 billion for Environmental and Climate Justice Block Grants, $27 billion for the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund, and $4 billion under the Advanced Energy Project Credit directed to industrial or manufacturing facilities located in communities historically reliant on fossil fuels.

Fully realizing these benefits requires breaking down deployment barriers and continued technology advancement, said DOE.

“DOE and other federal agencies have been hard at work, implementing IRA and BIL, spurring continual technological advancement and addressing deployment barriers. State, local, and tribal governments, civil society and the private sector also have important roles to play, to take advantage of the opportunities afforded by IRA and BIL. An all-of government and all-of-society approach will help maximize the positive returns from these historic new laws,” said the report.

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From: Eric3/18/2023 10:48:23 AM
   of 23933
Field data on heat pump efficiency, cold climate performance

Energy Systems Catapult has released interim data from air-source heat pump field monitoring in the United Kingdom between November 2020 and August 2022. Figures show that heat pumps are three times more efficient than gas boilers and that their median coefficient of performance (COP) on cold days is 2.44, compared to 2.80 year round.

March 17, 2023 Beatriz Santos

Distributed Storage
Energy Storage
Heat Pumps
Markets & Policy
Residential PV
Technology and R&D
United Kingdom

Residential heat pump

Image: Viessmann


Air-source heat pumps can operate at high efficiency in cold weather conditions, according to real-world monitoring data from the UK-based Electrification of Heat Demonstration Project.

“With the release of this data, we can finally put to bed the notion that heat pumps do not work in cold weather conditions and that they are inefficient to run,” said Marc Brown, interim business leader of Energy Systems Catapult. “We’ve observed the exact opposite. They are three times more efficient than gas boilers and work in cold weather conditions.”

The project is funded by the UK Department for Energy Security and Net Zero, which commissioned Energy Systems Catapult, a non-profit net zero innovation center, to report on the data. A total of 742 air-source heat pumps were installed in detached homes, semi-detached homes, and terraced houses, as well as flats. The age of the properties spans from before 1919 to 2001 and later.

The heat pumps were installed by three delivery contractors – Warmworks, E.ON, and OVO Energy. Their performance was monitored from November 2020 to August 2022, with seasonal performance factors (SPF) indicating their in-situ efficiency over the course of 12 months. Results show a median SPF of 2.80 across heat pump types, operational patterns, and home types.

“This is a significant increase of around 0.3 to 0.4 (30% to 40%) since the Renewable Heat Premium Payment scheme (RHPP) heat pump trial was undertaken between 2011-14,” Energy Systems Catapult said in a statement, referring to an incentive scheme put in place by the UK authorities. “Innovation in the industry and in the heat pump systems themselves is likely a leading factor in this performance improvement.”

Figures also show considerable performance variation across heat pump models, with refrigerant and flow temperature being key culprits. The median SPF for heat pumps using R32 refrigerant was 2.94, followed by propane (R290) at 2.89, and R410a at 2.66. Their global warming potentials (GWPs) are 675, 3, and 2,088, respectively.

As for operating flow temperature, data shows that heat pumps that can reach temperatures above 65 C have median SPFs between 2.89 and 2.92, while low operating temperature heat pumps have SPFs between 2.74 and 2.94. However, the report says that “operating above 65 C is not a common occurrence, with 81 of the 94 heat pumps operative above 65 C flow temperature less than 1% of the time.”

The project also analyzed heat pump performance during the coldest days of the year in the UK, when mean external temperatures varied from -5.8 C to 2 C. Their coefficient of performance (COP) was calculated for each of the cold days, with a mean of 2.44.

“This result indicates that heat pumps continue to operate with high efficiency – providing the requisite heat to homes – in a wide range of property types even in cold weather conditions,” Energy Systems Catapult said.

Brown concluded that heat pumps have been shown to work.

“The UK is heat pump ready. Now we need to apply those learnings,” Brown concluded. “Government and industry should commit to investing in upskilling existing installers in low-carbon heating solutions and doing more to attract new talent into the sector.”

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From: Eric3/18/2023 11:00:33 AM
   of 23933
Hounen to build 1 GW solar module factory in US

China-based module manufacturer Huonen Solar said it wants to build a panel manufacturing facility in Orangeburg, South Carolina. The factory will produce modules for the US market.

March 17, 2023 Vincent Shaw

Modules & Upstream Manufacturing
United States

Image: Hounen Solar


Zhejiang-based solar panel maker Hounen Solar says it will invest $33 million through its US subsidiary to acquire a factory building in Orangeburg, in the US state of South Carolina.

The governor’s office of South Carolina has confirmed Hounen’s plans. The company says the building will host 1 GW of solar module production lines.

“Our new solar panel production plant will enable us to produce monocrystalline silicon PV panels for the US market.” said Hounen CEO Jufang Ly. “We are grateful for the help and support of the South Carolina team and look forward to additional business opportunities in the state.”

Hounen Solar says the new factory will enable the creation of 200 new jobs. It is the third Chinese manufacturer to announce a new solar module factory in the United States since the introduction of the US Inflation Reduction Act (IRA).

Earlier this week, Longi Solar and US solar project developer Invenergy agreed to jointly construct a 5 GW solar panel factory in Pataskala, Ohio, via a newly founded company, Illuminate USA. A press release from Illuminate USA says the plan will cost $220 million. Invenergy said it has invested $600 million in the facility.

In January, Chinese panel maker JA Solar unveiled a plan to build a 2 GW PV panel factory in the US state of Arizona. The solar cell and module maker said in a statement that it has already leased land for the manufacturing facility at an unspecified location in Phoenix, Arizona. The factory is expected to start commercial operations in the fourth quarter of this year, it said, adding that it will lead to the creation of 600 new jobs.

My comments:

My hunch is this move to the U.S. will soon become a tidalwave as a result of the IRA bill.

More Chinese manufactures of PV's will move here to take advantage of the IRA.

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From: Wharf Rat3/18/2023 2:11:56 PM
   of 23933
Non-OPEC’s November Oil Production Increase Offsets OPEC’s Cutback
03/11/2023 Ovi

A guest post by Ovi

Below are a number of Crude plus Condensate (C + C) production charts, usually shortened to “oil”, for Non-OPEC countries. The charts are created from data provided by the EIA’s International Energy Statistics and are updated to November 2022. This is the latest and most detailed world oil production information available. Information from other sources such as OPEC, the STEO and country specific sites such as Russia, Brazil, Norway and China is used to provide a short term outlook for future output and direction for a few of these countries and the world. The US report has an expanded view beyond production by adding rig and frac spread charts.

November Non-OPEC oil production increased by 502 kb/d to 51,099 kb/d. The majority of the increase came from Kazakhstan and Russia.

In the last report, the forecast for November production was 51,051 kb/d. It was low by 48 kb/d.

Using data from the March 2023 STEO, a projection for Non-OPEC oil output was made for the period December 2022 to December 2024. (Red graph). Output is expected to reach 51,743 kb/d in December 2024, which is 659 kb/d lower than the November 2019 peak of 52,402 kb/d.

Note that after the January 2023 post pandemic high of 51,382 kb/d, production drops to a low of 50,013 kb/d in April 2023, before resuming its climb. The drop is primarily due to a projected drop in Russian oil output.


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From: Wharf Rat3/19/2023 12:02:27 PM
   of 23933
(Yet Another) New Battery Design Shows Big Promise

March 19, 2023

I generally discount those click baiting all-caps “THIS CHANGES EVERYTHING” headlines that turn out to be not really all that big a deal.
But this release from Argonne National Lab does get my attention..

Argonne National Lab:

Many owners of electric cars have wished for a battery pack that could power their vehicle for more than a thousand miles on a single charge. Researchers at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have developed a lithium-air battery that could make that dream a reality. The team’s new battery design could also one day power domestic airplanes and long-haul trucks.

The main new component in this lithium-air battery is a solid electrolyte instead of the usual liquid variety. Batteries with solid electrolytes are not subject to the safety issue with the liquid electrolytes used in lithium-ion and other battery types, which can overheat and catch fire.

More importantly, the team’s battery chemistry with the solid electrolyte can potentially boost the energy density by as much as four times above lithium-ion batteries, which translates into longer driving range.

“For over a decade, scientists at Argonne and elsewhere have been working overtime to develop a lithium battery that makes use of the oxygen in air,” said Larry Curtiss, an Argonne Distinguished Fellow. ?“The lithium-air battery has the highest projected energy density of any battery technology being considered for the next generation of batteries beyond lithium-ion.”

In past lithium-air designs, the lithium in a lithium metal anode moves through a liquid electrolyte to combine with oxygen during the discharge, yielding lithium peroxide (Li2O2) or superoxide (LiO2) at the cathode. The lithium peroxide or superoxide is then broken back down into its lithium and oxygen components during the charge. This chemical sequence stores and releases energy on demand.

The team’s new solid electrolyte is composed of a ceramic polymer material made from relatively inexpensive elements in nanoparticle form. This new solid enables chemical reactions that produce lithium oxide (Li2O) on discharge.

“The chemical reaction for lithium superoxide or peroxide only involves one or two electrons stored per oxygen molecule, whereas that for lithium oxide involves four electrons,” said Argonne chemist Rachid Amine. More electrons stored means higher energy density.

The team’s lithium-air design is the first lithium-air battery that has achieved a four-electron reaction at room temperature. It also operates with oxygen supplied by air from the surrounding environment. The capability to run with air avoids the need for oxygen tanks to operate, a problem with earlier designs.

The team employed many different techniques to establish that a four-electron reaction was actually taking place. One key technique was transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the discharge products on the cathode surface, which was carried out at Argonne’s Center for Nanoscale Materials, a DOE Office of Science user facility. The TEM images provided valuable insight into the four-electron discharge mechanism.

Past lithium-air test cells suffered from very short cycle lives. The team established that this shortcoming is not the case for their new battery design by building and operating a test cell for 1000 cycles, demonstrating its stability over repeated charge and discharge.

“With further development, we expect our new design for the lithium-air battery to also reach a record energy density of 1200 watt-hours per kilogram,” said Curtiss. ?“That is nearly four times better than lithium-ion batteries.”

This research was published in a recent issue of Science. Argonne authors include Larry Curtiss, Rachid Amine, Lei Yu, Jianguo Wen, Tongchao Liu, Hsien-Hau Wang, Paul C. Redfern, Christopher Johnson and Khalil Amine. Authors from IIT include Mohammad Asadi, Mohammadreza Esmaeilirad and Ahmad Mosen Harzandi. And Authors from the University of Illinois Chicago include Reza Shahbazian-Yassar, Mahmoud Tamadoni Saray, Nannan Shan and Anh Ngo.

The research was funded by the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences through the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research.

Science – A room temperature rechargeable Li2O-based lithium-air battery enabled by a solid electrolyte:

A lithium-air battery based on lithium oxide (Li2O) formation can theoretically deliver an energy density that is comparable to that of gasoline. Lithium oxide formation involves a four-electron reaction that is more difficult to achieve than the one- and two-electron reaction processes that result in lithium superoxide (LiO2) and lithium peroxide (Li2O2), respectively. By using a composite polymer electrolyte based on Li10GeP2S12 nanoparticles embedded in a modified polyethylene oxide polymer matrix, we found that Li2O is the main product in a room temperature solid-state lithium-air battery. The battery is rechargeable for 1000 cycles with a low polarization gap and can operate at high rates. The four-electron reaction is enabled by a mixed ion–electron-conducting discharge product and its interface with air.

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To: Wharf Rat who wrote (23327)3/19/2023 12:14:26 PM
From: Wharf Rat
   of 23933
OPEC Update, March 2023
03/18/2023 D Coyne

The OPEC Monthly Oil Market Report (MOMR) for March 2023 was published recently. The last month reported in most of the OPEC charts that follow is February 2023 and output reported for OPEC nations is crude oil output in thousands of barrels per day (kb/d). In many of the OPEC charts that follow the blue line is monthly output and the red line is the centered twelve month average (CTMA) output.

Figure 1Figure 2OPEC crude output was revised lower in January 2023 by 69 kb/d compared to last month’s report and December 2022 OPEC crude output was revised lower by 7 kb/d. When the World was at its centered twelve month average peak for C+C output in August 2018, OPEC crude output was 31237 kb/d (as shown on the chart), February 2023 OPEC crude output was 2313 kb/d below that level. The centered twelve month average (CTMA) peak for OPEC crude output is also shown on figure 1 (31837 kb/d) which is 2913 kb/d higher than February 2023.


OPEC Update, March 2023 – Peak Oil Barrel

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From: Wharf Rat3/19/2023 1:08:10 PM
   of 23933
As far as I can tell, the main spillway doesn't have any turbines; that needs to change.

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From: Wharf Rat3/21/2023 12:41:34 PM
   of 23933
OPEC Update, March 2023 – Peak Oil Barrel

World Less USA seems to be stalling. This data is through November 2022. Look for December and January to drop.

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