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From: Investor27/9/2020 2:08:44 PM
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Demand for flu vaccine soars as countries plan for second Covid-19 wave

theguardian.com.

Officials in the UK are considering whether to offer flu shots to everyone

The possible beneficial adjuvant effect of influenza vaccine to minimize the severity of COVID-19

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

Resultant immunity against prior influenza infection would, at least in part, foster immunity against SARS-CoV-2.

Public Health England

england.nhs.uk.

It is more important than ever that we have effective plans in place for the 2020/21 flu season to protect those at risk, prevent ill-health and minimise further impact on the NHS and social care

The Dual Epidemics of COVID-19 and Influenza (JAMA 11 June)

jamanetwork.com.

Likelihood of co-epidemics of COVID-19 and influenza

Considerable morbidity and mortality

Stressing the health system

2018 – 2019 flu session, US

35.5 million influenza cases

490?600 hospitalizations

34?200 deaths related to influenza

Vaccination prevented

4.4 million influenza cases

58?000 hospitalizations

3500 deaths

Seasonal influenza vaccines have variable year-to-year effectiveness

Can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality, especially with high coverage
Advocates mass flu vaccination

BUT

Increased Risk of Noninfluenza Respiratory Virus Infections Associated With Receipt of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (Clinical Infective Diseases, 2012)

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

Influenza vaccination is effective in preventing influenza virus infection and associated morbidity among school-aged children

Randomized placebo-controlled trial of influenza vaccination

115 participants were followed up for 272 days

Flu vac group had higher risk of Acute Respiratory Infections associated with confirmed noninfluenza respiratory virus infection

RR, 4.40

The majority of the noninfluenza respiratory virus detections were rhinoviruses and coxsackie, echoviruses, and coronavirus 229E

Receipt of flu vac could increase influenza immunity at the expense of reduced immunity to noninfluenza respiratory viruses, by some unknown biological mechanism.

Temporary nonspecific immunity leading to interference between epidemics of respiratory viruses could have important implications

The UK’s public health response to covid-19

bmj.com.

Possible correlation between influenza vaccination and COVID-19 deaths rates in European countries

Flu shots and the risk of coronavirus infections

bmj.com.

Possibility that seasonal flu shots are potential contributors COVID-19

Flu shots increased fivefold the risk of acute respiratory infections caused by a group of noninfluenza viruses, including coronaviruses

Odds ratio of 4.91

Influenza vaccines may alter our immune systems non-specifically to increase susceptibility to other infections
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